Copyrighted Material

**Contents**

**Introduction**** **by Leonard Peikoff** **

**Preface**

**1. The Foundation**

The Nature of Concepts

Generalizations as Hierarchical

Perceiving First-Level Causal Connections

Conceptualizing First-Level Causal Connections

The Structure of Inductive Reasoning

**2. Experimental Method**

Galileo’s Kinematics

Newton’s Optics

The Methods of Difference and Agreement

Induction as Inherent in Conceptualization

**3. The Mathematical Universe**

The Birth of Celestial Physics

Mathematics and Causality

The Power of Mathematics

Proof of Kepler’s Theory

**4. Newton’s Integration**

The Development of Dynamics

The Discovery of Universal Gravitation

Discovery is Proof

**5. The Atomic Theory**

Chemical Elements and Atoms

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

The Unification of Chemistry

The Method of Proof

**6. Causes of Error**

Misapplying the Inductive Method

Abandoning the Inductive Method

**7. The Role of Mathematics and Philosophy**

Physics as Inherently Mathematical

The Science of Philosophy

An End—and a New Beginning

References

Index