Table of Contents

Copyrighted Material


Introduction by Leonard Peikoff


1. The Foundation

The Nature of Concepts
Generalizations as Hierarchical
Perceiving First-Level Causal Connections
Conceptualizing First-Level Causal Connections
The Structure of Inductive Reasoning

2. Experimental Method

Galileo’s Kinematics
Newton’s Optics
The Methods of Difference and Agreement
Induction as Inherent in Conceptualization

3. The Mathematical Universe

The Birth of Celestial Physics
Mathematics and Causality
The Power of Mathematics
Proof of Kepler’s Theory

4. Newton’s Integration

The Development of Dynamics
The Discovery of Universal Gravitation
Discovery is Proof

5. The Atomic Theory

Chemical Elements and Atoms
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
The Unification of Chemistry
The Method of Proof

6. Causes of Error

Misapplying the Inductive Method
Abandoning the Inductive Method

7. The Role of Mathematics and Philosophy

Physics as Inherently Mathematical
The Science of Philosophy
An End—and a New Beginning